Glossary

5

504 Plan
A plan developed for students with disabilities who do not qualify for special education services that outlines the supports and accommodations a school will provide the student to remove barriers to learning and allow the student to learn alongside their peers. The 504 Plan comes from Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

A

Accessibility Features
The settings and tools available to students, with and without disabilities, that provide support for them to access test items. For example: a change in the color contrast or font size of an online test.
Accommodations
Accessibility features that are only available to students with disabilities that are outlined on the IEP or 504 plan.
Adaptation
Any modifications provided for a student's testing experience that affect the construct of the test, which is the general skill that the test is intended to assess. For example: providing the test-to-speech or read aloud accommodation for reading passages on the ELA/Literacy assessment - items with reading passages are intended to assess a student's reading comprehension skills, not listening comprehension.
Aggregation
The compilation of test result data that provides average scores for a group of students, such as the students in a roster or school.
Alignment
The association between an item and a content standard that identifies which skill or knowledge area that item is intended to measure.
Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC)
A term used to describe the different methods that can be used to help people with disabilities communicate with others. These methods can be used as either an alternative or a supplement to speech, and can include individual methods of sign and gestures, standardized signing, symbol systems, and complex electronic devices.
Alternative Computer Input Technology (ACI)
Assistive tools that allow students with various impairments (such as physical and visual impairments) to interact with a computer without using a traditional mouse and keyboard setup.
Assessment
An online or paper test consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as a test.
Assessment Viewing Application (AVA)
A CAI system that allows users to securely view the items on the ELA/L, math and science interim assessments.
Assistive Keyboard and Mouse Input Technology
Assistive tools that provide additional support to students with physical impairments who need to use a keyboard and mouse in order to respond to test items.
Assistive Technology
Any hardware or software that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.
Authoring
A CAI system that allows educators to create original, standard-aligned items and add them to tests, which can be published to the Test Delivery System (TDS) for administration to students.
Autonomous Single App Mode (ASAM)
A special feature available in some testing devices that allows that device to lock its focus onto a single application.

B

BRF File (BRF)
A Braille file type used to emboss test items containing only text or formatted tables.

C

Cambium Assessment, Inc. (CAI)
An education company devoted to student assessment. Owned by Cambium Learning Group.
Chrome OS
An operating system developed and distributed by Google.
Chromebook
A laptop running Chrome OS.
Circle Match
An item type that requires students to respond by matching together answer options that appear in a circle layout.
Cloze (CZ)
An item type that requires students to respond by filling in a blank that appears in a sentence.
Cluster
May refer to either of two things:
-A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
-A set of interactions that engage students in an activity aligned to a specific standard.
Column Match
An item type that requires students to respond by matching together answer options that are listed in a set of columns.
Comma-Separated Values (CSV)
A type of file in which data are separated by commas. Some CAI systems allow users to create or modify data in bulk by uploading a CSV file.
Complexity
The level of cognitive demand expected for a student to correctly answer a test item.
Condition Code
When a student's response to an item cannot be scored, a code is applied in place of a score to identify why the student's response cannot be scored.
Construct
The set of concepts or skills that a test is intended to measure, such as reading ability or writing ability.
Constructed Response (CR)
An item type that requires student to respond with a written, pictorial, or graphic answer.
Content
Used to refer to the text or other media type (graphics, tables, animation) within the reading passage, stimulus, and/or prompt and item.
Content Standard
The skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Context Menu Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear inside a menu and are available for individual items and stimuli.
Contracted Braille
A version of braille in which abbreviations, contractions and other short forms of words are used in addition to the use of the standard alphabet and standard punctuation marks.
Core Content Connector (CCC)
See Extended Content Standard Core Content Connectors.
Cut Score
A specific point on a test's score scale that distinguishes between two performance levels. Scores at or above that point are interpreted to mean something different from scores below that point. Cut scores can determine if a student's test score is performance Level 1, 2, 3 or 4.

D

Data Entry Interface (DEI)
A CAI system that allows users to enter student responses recorded on paper/pencil summative tests.
Designated Supports
Accessibility features available for use by any student for whom the need has been indicated by a teacher or educational team that includes a parent/guardian and student.
Device
Hardware that students may use in daily classroom instruction and to take tests, including, but not limited to, desktop computers, laptops, netbooks, tablets and assistive technologies for students requiring accommodations.
Dimension
A type of scoring criterion in an item's rubric.
Disaggregation
The process by which performance data for a group of students, such as a roster or school, is broken down into data for the various sub-groups or demographic groups within that larger student group.
District Administrator (DA)
A CAI system user role representing an administrator for an entire district.
District Coordinator (DC)
A CAI system user role representing a coordinator for an entire district.
District Instructional Support (DIS)
A CAI system user role designed for statewide support across many districts.
Domain
A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
Drag-and-Drop Grid Item
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging a text or image object onto specified locations in a grid or image.
Duxbury Braille Translator
Accessibility software used to emboss BRF test items in a Braille test.

E

Ear Icon
An icon found in the Idaho Alternate Assessment used to activate the human voice recording.
Early Stopping Rule (ESR)
Early test submission option open to students with significant cognitive impairments who qualify for the Idaho Alternate Assessment (IDAA) who do not have a consistent, observable mode of communication, as indicated on the Student Response Check (SRC), and do not respond to the first four scorable items on the IDAA because of deficits in communication skills.
Edit Task (ET)
An item type that requires students to respond by editing words or phrases in a sentence.
Edit Task Inline Choice (ETIC)
An item type that requires students to respond by filling in the blank in a sentence by selecting options from an inline drop-down list.
Edit Task with Choice (ETC)
An item type that requires students to respond by selecting replacement text for a word or phrase from a drop-down list.
Education Unique Identifier (EDUID)
A unique number or alphanumeric code assigned to a student for identification purposes.
Eligibility Rules
Student attributes set up in TIDE that determine which tests a student will be able to take in TDS.
Embedded Support
Accessibility features that are built-in tools and settings in the student testing site.
Embedded Text Entry (ETE)
An item type that requires students respond by typing an answer in one or more blank text boxes that appear in a sentence.
English Learner (EL)
A national-origin-minority student who is limited-English-proficient. English language learners are a diverse group of students, with different language, academic, and social-emotional needs.
Equation Response (EQ)
An item type that allows students to respond by clicking mathematical characters that appear in an on-screen keypad.
Evidence-Based Selected Response (EBSR)
An item type that requires students to answer a multi-part question related to an accompanying passage or information presented in the stem.
Exemplar
An element included in an item's scoring rubric that provides an example of a student response that would earn a certain number of points.
Expiration Rules
The rules that determine how long it takes a test opportunity to expire when a student starts it without completing it. Students cannot make any additional changes to a test opportunity once it expires.
Extended Answer (EA)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a longer text response, such as an essay.
Extended Constructed Response (ECR)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a longer text response, such as an essay.
Extended Content Standards Core Content Connectors
New item: The standards assessed on the Idaho Alternate Assessment that are aligned with the Idaho Content Standards, but reduced in depth, breadth, and complexity.
Eye-gaze
New item: A mode of communication used by students with disabilities whereby the student indicates their response option by looking at their answer choice.

F

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
A federal law that protects students' privacy regarding education records and also provides parents with rights regarding their children's education records.
Fedora
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Field-Authored Test
A test created in Authoring by an educator, as opposed to tests provided by CAI or an assessment program.
Firewall (FW)
A network security system that monitors traffic and prevents unauthorized access to the network.
Force Quit
An action that test administrators may need to take to close the Secure Browser in the event that it becomes unresponsive.
Form
A compilation of test items and/or stimuli that make up the segments of an assessment. Also known as a test form.
Frequency-Distribution Report (FDR)
A report that shows the frequency or count of a particular score or outcome by student group or demographic.

G

Global Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear at the top of the screen and are available for an entire test segment.
Grade Band
Two or more consecutive grade levels (for example, grades 3 through 6).
Grade Level
The grade in which a student is enrolled or, for students not assigned a grade, the academic grade of same-age peers who are in a general education classroom.
Graph Item (GI)
An item type that requires students to respond by adjusting the heights or lengths of bars in a graph.
Grid Item (GI)
An item type that offers several different ways for the student to interact with a grid area, such as dragging an object onto the grid canvas or plotting points on a graph.

H

Hand Scoring (HS)
The process of manually scoring test items, which may be performed by educators in the Reporting system.
Hot Spot
An item type that requires students to respond by clicking regions on an image, such as countries on a map.
Hot Text (HT)
An item type that requires students to click words or phrases in a section of text.
Human Voice Recording (HVR)
New item: Audio feature of the Idaho Alternate Assessment that is recorded by a person and played for the student. HVR's are activated by clicking the ear icon for all stimuli, passages, item stem, and response options before a student chooses a response.

I

Idaho Alternate Assessment (IDAA)
New term: Summative assessment option available to students with the most significant cognitive impairments who meet all participation criteria as outlined in a student's IEP; taken in lieu of the ISAT with or without accommodations.
Image Drag and Drop
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging an image onto a background.
Individual Student Report (ISR)
A report that provides detailed information about an individual student's performance on an individual test.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
IEP is an acronym for Individualized Education Program: replace the word "Plan" with "Program" in the term.
Interaction
A component of an item that students can interact with, such as a list of options they can select from or a text box in which they type a response. An item may include one or more individual interactions.
Interim Assessment Item Portal (IAIP)
Within Tools for Teachers, a DA/DC/SC/TE/TA can easily find, access, and export relevant interim assessment test items.
Invalidate a Test
An appeal created in TIDE that eliminates the test opportunity, which results in the test not being scored, and the student having no further opportunities for the test.
iOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
iPadOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
Item
A scored test question, activity, or task that requires student interaction or input.
Item Template
A template available in the Authoring system that allows users to create the content for original test items.

J

Job Access with Speech (JAWS)
A screen reader software designed to help people who are blind or have visual impairments use computer applications.

K

Keyboard Command
A key or combination of keys students can press in order to perform an action in the Student Testing Site.
Kiosk Mode
A feature available in certain operating systems in which a device allows access only to a specific application, such as CAI's Secure Browser.

L

Learner Characteristics Inventory (LCI)
The LCI is completed by the teacher in the Data Entry Interface for students who qualify for the Idaho Alternate Assessment before the student begins testing.
Linux
A family of free and open source operating systems, some of which are supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A network that connects a group of computers that are in the same location.
Long Answer (LA)
An item type that requires students to type a long response in a text box, such as an essay question.
Longitudinal Report
A type of report available in the Reporting system that shows a comparison of assessment results for a particular student or group of students at two or more points in time.

M

Machine Scoring
Item scoring performed automatically by a computer.
Machine-Scored Constructed Response (MSCR)
An item type that uses machine-scored logic to score a student's response.
Match Item (MI)
An item type that requires students to respond by matching answer options together.
Mobile Secure Browser (MSB)
The mobile version of CAI's Secure Browser. It is used on iPads (iPadOS and iOS) and Chromebooks.
Multiple Choice (MC)
An item type that requires students to select a single answer from a list of options.
Multiple Select (MS)
An item type that requires students to select one or more answer options from a list of options.

N

Natural Language (NL)
A machine-scored item type that requires students to type a response in a text box.
Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics (Nemeth Code)
A Braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly.
Non-Embedded Supports
Accessibility features that are provided outside of the student testing site.

O

Open Ended (OE)
An item type that requires students to type a response in a text box.
Operational
An operational assessment is one that is developed and administered at a specified time and whose scoring results are used for the purpose of meeting local, state, and/or federal requirements.
Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. An interim test allows for more than on opportunity per eligible student. A summative test allows for only one opportunity.
Options
The response choices to an item's stem from which students select an answer.

P

Participation Rate
In student testing, the percentage of students within a particular group who took a test as compared to the total number of students in the group who could have taken the test.
Participation Report by EDUID
A report available in TIDE that details the status for each test opportunity started by a particular student.
Pause Rule
A rule in the Student Testing Site that restricts students from modifying their responses to previous items if they pause their test and return to it after exceeding a certain time limit.
Performance on Tests Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a user's associated students.
Permissive Mode
An accommodation option that allows students to use accessibility software in addition to the Secure Browser.
Personally Identifying Information (PII)
Information that could identify an individual person, such as a student's name and date of birth.
Plan and Manage Testing Report
A report available in TIDE that details all of a student’s test opportunities and the status of those test opportunities.
Portal
A website for administrators, educators, and stakeholders that includes access to Cambium Assessment, Inc. systems, training sites, tutorials, and other resources.
Predictive Text Technology
A type of assistive technology that suggests words to students as they type responses to test items.
Prefetch Item Rule
A setting in TDS that queues up a certain number of test items as students progress through the test to ensure there are no delays in testing.
PreID Label
A label affixed to a student’s physical testing materials, such as a paper test booklet.
Print Request
A TA Site feature that allows students with the appropriate accommodation settings to request printouts of test content. The test administrator must approve all print requests.
Printed Response Option Cards
An alternative way for students to indicate their response option on the Fixed-Form of the Idaho Alternate Assessment.
PRN File (PRN)
A Braille file type used to emboss test items containing Nemeth code or tactile graphics.
Prompt (P)
The component of an item that provides students with the instructions or question they must respond to.
Prose Constructed Response (PCR)
An item type that requires students to respond to a prompt by writing an answer in a text box.

R

Refreshable Braille Display (RBD)
An assistive technology device for visually-impaired students that translates text to a readable braille format.
Remote Administration (Remote Admin)
A Test Delivery System (TDS) feature that allows test administrators to proctor online tests remotely when students are unable to take a test in the same physical location as the administrator.
Re-open a Test
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test segment that a student already submitted or has expired. This is available only if the student has not yet started a new test segment.
Re-open Test Segment
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a previous test segment.
Reporting
A CAI system that provides comprehensive student performance reports on assessments and allows educators to hand-score some test items.
Reporting Category
A topic or skill area within a test. In the Reporting system, some reports may allow users to view performance data by reporting category.
Reset a Test
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to restart a test opportunity (removing all responses on the test), or allows the data entry operator to restart the data entry process.
Restore a Test that was Reset
An appeal created in TIDE that reverses a test reset, restoring the student responses that were on the test when the reset was processed.
Review Group
A group of users within the Authoring system that is able to review and approve items submitted to a shared items library.
Roster
A group of students associated with an educator. Rosters typically represent classes, but may also represent other groups, such as students who have taken honors courses.
Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.

S

School Test Coordinator (SC)
A CAI system user role representing a test coordinator for an individual school.
School Year (SY)
The academic year, given as a range (for example, 2020 to 2021).
Scoring Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.
Scratchpad (SP)
An item type that requires students to respond by using drawing tools in a canvas area.
Screen Magnifier Technology
A type of assistive technology that enlarges the content displayed on the computer screen in order to assist students with visual impairments.
Screen Reader
An application that transforms the text displayed on a computer screen into synthesized speech for vision-impaired users.
Screensaver Mode
A feature in the TA Site that temporarily hides sensitive student data that appears on screen.
Scribe
Accessibility feature by which a student dictates their response to a person who records verbatim what the student dictates. On the Idaho Alternate Assessment, a scribe may click the response option for a student who uses an alternate mode of communication and/or may be unable to control a computer mouse with intention to indicate their response option.
Secure Browser (SB)
The CAI browser through which all operational tests are administered. The Secure Browser provides a secure and user-friendly environment for students to complete tests while preventing access to any prohibited tools or applications.
Secure Inbox
The secure inbox shared across multiple CAI systems. It stores files that were exported from those systems.
Short Answer (SA)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short response in a text box.
Short Constructed Response (SCR)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short response in a text box.
Short Text Item
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short response in a text box.
Significant Cognitive Disability (SCD)
See Significant Cognitive Impairment.
Significant Cognitive Impairment (SCI)
A designation given to a small number of students with disabilities for the purposes of their participation in the Idaho Alternate Assessment. Having a significant cognitive impairment is not solely determined by an IQ test score, nor based on a specific disability category, but rather a complete understanding of the complex needs of a student. Students with significant cognitive impairments have a disability or multiple disabilities that significantly impact their adaptive skills and intellectual functioning. These students have adaptive skills well below average in two or more skill areas and intellectual functioning well below average (typically associated with an IQ below 55).
Simulation (SIM)
An item type that requires students to set the parameters of an interactive animation and extrapolate data in a table.
Single Sign-On (SSO)
A shared component in CAI systems that allows users to use a single set of login credentials to access every CAI system.
Speech-to-Text (STT)
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that transcribes a student's speech and enters it into a text box.
Standard
The specific skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Stem
The question or prompt in a test item to which the students must respond.
Stimulus
A reading passage or multimedia resource in a test that students must review in order to respond to a set of associated items.
Student Data File
A spreadsheet file that lists comprehensive test result data for a custom combination of tests and students, which users can generate and export in the Reporting system.
Student Portfolio Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a particular student.
Student Response Check (SRC)
The Student Response Check (SRC) is used to determine if the student has a consistent, observable mode of communication for response to test items.
Student Testing Site
The component of the Test Delivery System (TDS) where students can take tests. Both practice and operational Student Testing Sites are available. The operational site is also known as the Secure Browser.

T

Table Input (TI)
An item type that requires students to respond by entering information in a table.
Table Match
An item type that requires students to respond by clicking checkboxes in the cells of a table to match together terms that appear in the column and row headers.
Take a Test (TAT)
A Microsoft application that allows students to take a test securely in Windows. The Take a Test app may be used as an alternative to the CAI Secure Browser.
Teacher (TE)
A CAI system user role, typically one that is associated with one or more rosters.
Technology-Enhanced Items (TEIs)
Items that use the enhanced capabilities of a computer-based test to present interactions and elicit responses in ways that may not be possible on a paper-based test.
Test
An online or paper form consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as an assessment.
Test Administration Certification Course (TA Certification Course)
A certification course that potential test administrators must annually take and pass to use CAI's Test Delivery System.
Test Administration Site (TA Site)
A component of CAI's Test Delivery System used by test administrators to proctor online test sessions. Both practice and operational TA Sites exist. Also known as the TA Interface.
Test Administrator (TA)
A CAI system user role for an educator who may administer test sessions in the test delivery system.
Test Completion Rate Report
A report available in TIDE that summarizes the number and percentage of students who have started or completed a test.
Test Delivery System (TDS)
A set of CAI systems used by educators to proctor online test sessions and by students to complete online assessments. TDS includes the TA Site, the Student Testing Site, the Assessment Viewing Application, and the Data Entry Interface.
Test Form
A compilation of one or more test items and/or tasks that comprise the full test.
Test Impropriety
Test incidents that are reported as TIDE Test Improprieties are those that involve a student and a test, and require an action such as to Reset, Re-open, Invalidate, or Restore the test the student was taking at the time of the incident.
Test Information Distribution Engine (TIDE)
A CAI system that allows users to prepare for, administer, and clean up data after testing.
Test Label
The name of an assessment as displayed in CAI systems.
Test Reason
A category assigned to a test opportunity, which is used to categorize the test for reporting purposes. Test reasons can be assigned to test opportunities in TDS or the Reporting system.
Test Reason Manager
A feature in the Reporting system that allows users to set and modify the test reasons assigned to test opportunities.
Test Segment
A section of a test. Tests may be divided into multiple segments based on the skills measured, types of tasks, and/or tools available in that section.
Test Session
A unique event created by Test Administrators that allows approved student to access a selected test.
Test Status Code Report
A report available in TIDE that displays all the non-participation codes for a test administration.
Test Ticket
A piece of paper that includes some of the necessary information (e.g., the student's first name and EDUID) that will be used to log into a test session.
Test Timeout
When a student's test pauses automatically after a certain period of inactivity.
Test Window (TW)
The date range a particular test is available for administration to eligible students.
Text Drag and Drop
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging text elements into the blank spaces within a sentence or paragraph.
Text-to-Speech (TTS)
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that reads aloud text content within a test.
Tiger Max Embosser
Accessibility software used to emboss PRN test items in a Braille test.
Tools for Teachers (TFT)
The online repository of instructional material and formative assessment strategies.
Tools for Teachers - District (TFT_D)
A CAI system user role that has access to Tools for Teachers (TFT) and is associated with a certain district. This user role does not have access to any other CAI system.
Tools for Teachers - School (TFT_SC)
A CAI system user role that has access to Tools for Teachers (TFT) and is associated with a certain school. This user role does not have access to any other CAI system.
Translations - Dual Language
A test where both spanish and english text are displayed with Spanish being displayed first.
Tutorial
A tool within the Student Testing Site that plays a video demonstrating how students interact with a particular item type.

U

Ubuntu
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Uncontracted Braille
A version of Braille that uses cells of dots to represent individual letters, numbers, and symbols.
Universal Tools
Accessibility features that are available to any and all students based on student preference and selection.
User
A person who is able to access and use a CAI system. Accounts for users can be created in TIDE.
User Role
In CAI systems, a role associated with a user's email address that determines which systems they may access and which permissions they have within that system.

V

Voice Pack (VP)
A software tool for emulating speech. Voice packs must be present in testing devices for any students who will use text-to-speech (TTS).

W

Word Builder (WP)
An item type that requires students to create a word by typing with an on-screen keyboard.
Workgroup
A custom set of users in Authoring who regularly share item and test content with each other.